The Bill of Rights

1 - Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or the press, or of the right of the people to peaceably assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

2 - A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

3 - No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner prescribed by law.

4 - The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized

5No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless upon a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or navel forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

6 – In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have Assistance of Counsel for his defense.

7 – In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

8 – Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

9 – The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

10 – The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

These first ten amendments to the Constitution, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, were primarily authored by James Madison and introduced during the Constitution ratification debates in 1787-1789. The Bill of Rights originally applied only to the federal government. Their application upon state and local governments followed ratification of the 14th amendment in the 1860s.

Provided in the public interest by the Peacemakers of Schoharie County.

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